MINOR WORD FORMATION PROCESSES

MINOR WORD FORMATION PROCESSES

CLIPPING

Is the process of forming words by  removing one or more syllables from a word. Clipping may occur at:-

  • the beginning – e.g. phone – telephone, plane – airplane
  • the end of a word- e.g. ad – adverstment, taxi – taxcab, mic – microphone, pub – public
  • both ends of a word – e.g. flu – influenze, fridge – refridgerator

ACRONYM

Is the process of forming words by taking initial letters of words in phrase, sentence or names.there are two types of acronyms:-

-Those pronounced as sequences of letters ( initialization). initialization may be: the letters representing full words e.g. UN – United Nations, CCM – Chama Cha Mapinduzi, EAC – East African Community

-The letters representing elements in a compound or just parts of word e.g. TV – Television, TB – Tuberculosis, GHQ – General Headquarters

-Those pronounced as words. E.g. VETA – Vocational Education Training Authority, MOI – Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute , NATO – ( the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation), RADAR – Radio Detecting  and Ranging)

BLENDING

Is the process of forming words by fragmenting elements of two bases and join (blend) them together e.g. Brunch – breakfast + lunch, telecast – television + broadcast, mobitel – mobile telephone, flush – flash + gush, medicare – medical care, motel – motor +hotel, smog – smoke fog, interpole – international + police, transistor – transfer + resister

BORROWING

It refers to the process of forming words by taking a word from one language and incorporating it into another. Examples of English words borrowed from other languages include:- Alcohol ( Arabic), boxer and ozone (from German), piano (Italian), boss (Dutch) zebra (Bantu).

Others include; safari (Kiswahili), judo, karate, tycoon (Japanese), boutique, crusade (French), pistol, polka, robot ( from Czech Republic), cookie, lottery, boss, yatch (from Netherland and Belgium), kangaroo (Australia), amen, messiah, gauze ( from Israel)

REDUPLICATION

It refers to the process of forming words through repetition of the same or almost the same sounds.it is the process of forming new words by doubling an entire word (total reduplication) or part of a word (partial reduplication). examples; criss – cross,  ding- dong,  no – no, goody- goody, see – saw,  tip – top,  pooh – pooh,                       splish – splash, super – duper, ha – ha, zig – zag

NOTE: Reduplicatives are mostly informally.

uses of reduplicatives

  • To imitate sound e.g.ding – dong ( the sound of a bell), ha – ha (laughter), tick – tock (clock) bo
  • To intensify e.g. tip – top
  • to suggest alternative movement e.g. see – saw, zig – zag

COINING/COINAGE

It refers to the process of forming words through invention of new terms. The newly invented term is called eponym. Examples, aspirin, Kodak, nylon, sandwich,  Orlon

NEOLOGISM (SEMANTIC LOAN)

It refers to the extension of the meaning of a word to include new, foreign meanings. For example the word “tick” its meaning has been extended semantically to mean an “exploiter”

ONOMATOPOEIA

The creation of words that imitate natural sounds like the bird’s name cuckoo or pikipiki (motorcycle) and nyau (cat) in Kiswahili

BACK FORMATION

Is the morphological process in which new words are reversed from the words which existed earlier e.g. the noun Television first into use then the verb Televise was created from it. Baby-sit has been created from the earlier noun Baby-sitter

OR

It is a process which involves reduction. a word of one type (normally a noun) is reduced to form another word of different type (usually verb) e.g. – Televisin – televise, editor – edit, donation – donate, emotion – emote

SYMBOLISM

Thisis a process which involves the change of the structure of a word. e.g. man – men, foot – feet, the changes may be in:-vowels e.g. goose – geese, woman – women consonants, build – built, has – had the whole structure e.g. go – went, buy – bought

CONVERSION (Zero Affixation)

Is a word formation process where a word/base is converted into a new word class without changing its form? Examples; NOUN to VERB Smile (N) smile (V)

Noun                             verb

I like your smile              don’t smile

Bank (N) bank (V)

Noun                                      verb

CRDB is a commercial Bank      I bank with Exim Bank

Tax (N) tax(V)

Noun                        Verb

We must pay tax       we tax higher than Uganda

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