Competition in industrial production:
:European capitalist nations increased the demand for
industrial development as a result of competition in industrial production.
During the period before the nineteenth century Britain dominated the industrial production and
was the leading major industrial nation in the world.
However, in the nineteenth century other European nations such as German, France, Italy and
Belgium became industrial nations. The emergence of other nations in industrial development
brought about competition for markets of industrial goods, raw materials and areas for
investment. Therefore, the industrial nations were compelled to look for an alternative for that
competition outside Europe, where they could sell their goods and collect raw materials.
Demands for raw materials:
The highly demanded raw materials were cotton, oil, sugar cane,
ivory, rubber and iron ore. Most of these raw materials could not be found in Europe in large
quantities. In fact, those tropical crops could not grow in Europe. Following this Europe decided
to produce such raw materials in Africa, India, New Zealand, Australia and China. In those areas
raw materials were produced in large quantity than in Britain and other nations in Europe.
In Africa sugar cane plantation were established by the French in the Reunion and Mauritius
Islands. The French depended on slave labour in those plantation the main sources of slaves was
east Africa and some parts of southern Africa such as Mozambique.
The rise of other industrial nations:
In the 1870s other European countries were industrialised
this resulted in increased demand of raw materials. Therefore, it was difficult for one European
country to obtain raw materials from other European countries.It was also more difficult for one European country to export her manufactured goods to another
European country. Each country was struggling to protect its domestic market industries and
controlling its sources of raw materials.
Resulted in the development of the industrial sector. By the beginning
of the 1870s, Europe could not easily enter U.S.A since it had introduced protective tariffs to
keep out foreign manufactured goods and protect its industries. By the 1860s, markets for
manufactured goods and sources of raw materials in Europe had greatly declined.
Accumulation of wealth:
In order to ensure this they decided to invest the wealth that was being
obtained in industries into other areas outside Europe.
Overpopulation and unemployment:
The problem of overpopulation and unemploymentwas
also rising in European countries. Therefore, the solution to those problems was sought outside
The need for assurance of genuine and reliable markets and control of sources of raw
Europeemployed and sent agents to various important regions of Africa. These
industrial capitalism agents prepared Africans for colonisation in future years. Therefore, in the
early nineteenth century European activities in Africa were led by agents of industrial capitalism
known as agents of colonisation.
Agents of Industrial Capitalism.
There were about four groups of agents of industrial capitalism in Africa namely: