During primitive communalism all the time man largely depended on nature so as to increase his
Domestication of animal and plants or emergence of Neolithic revolution in the late age of the
Stone Age; this was the greatest revolution made so far for the first time by man.
Development of permanent settlement:
Even with nomadic pastoralist or shifting cultivation
the area of operation became limited as the number of people increased due to the Neolithic
revolution. Hence the production increased with the population following this permanent
settlement was inevitable.
Advanced production of tools like hand hoes, panga, axe and other iron tools resulted from the
Land continued to belong to the community but agriculture became the major economic activity
Transition from advanced communalism to feudalism mode of
African societies were not static, but they underwent transformations, which were influenced by
the environment, climate and soil fertility, the growth of population and the increase of
productive forces all which paved the way for a new mode of production.
Such factors caused societies’ transitions from communalism to feudalism, by the 19th century
some societies were practicing feudalism. However, groups such as the Tindiga of Tanzania,
Khoisan of Kalahari maintained their communal mode of production.
Some societies lived in areas with good climate and fertile soils. Such societies included the
Mandika and the Yoruba in the forest of savannah regions, Bunyoro, Buganda, Ankore, Toro,
Tutsi, Haya, Hutu and Waha of East Africa as well as the Zulu and the Nguni in South Africa.
Reliable rainfall and fertile soils allowed the expansion of agriculture and the cultivation of
permanent crops e.g. bananas in Buganda.
The cultivation of permanent crops led to the growth of permanent settlements which ensured
The advancement of science and technology led to the discovery of iron. From iron people made
strong and sharper tools than stone tools which increased the rate of production.
The growth in population led to an increase in food production and the standard of living.
Population increase resulted in shortage of land and caused overcrowding this also led to the rise
of highly centralised states that developed standing armies which later carried out constant raids.
Shortage of land and its increase in value contribution to the development of productive forces
since they were conditioned to produce everything in small areas.
Such factors threatened the communal mode of production and led to feudalism, since land was
privately owned by people. This created classes of land owners and those who were landless
within the community. Organisation of labour was then dictated by land controllers at the
expense of the landless who worked for the land owners in order to be paid. Also, the
distribution of products was not equal; as land controllers took the highest shares for themselves.
Furthermore societies underwent a transformation from communalism to feudalism systems due
to the fact that some societies become strong and conquered weaker societies.